How Private Student Loans Work
Many students turn to loans to help finance their education. While the college loan process might seem complicated and overwhelming at first, this article will help you understand how to take out a student loan and how they work, step by step – from research to repayment.
What’s the difference between federal and private student loans?
Federal student loans are issued by the government, while private student loans are issued by private lenders, such as banks and financial companies.
In this article, we’ll focus on how private student loans work. For more information on the difference between the two types, see our guide to Federal vs. Private Student Loans.
Federal and private loans for college have different types of lenders and, therefore, different application processes. Before you apply for a private student loan, see if you can reduce the cost of your education through other forms of financial aid, such as grants, scholarships, and federal loans. Remember that when it comes to covering the costs of your education, you might need a few different sources. At College Ave, we award $1,000 every month to the winner of our scholarship sweepstakes.
How Long It Takes to Get a Private Student Loan
How fast you can get a private student loan depends primarily on the lender. Most private student loan applications can be submitted online and take an average of fifteen minutes to complete. Approval times can vary, but most lenders will let you know if you’re approved within a matter of days.
At College Ave, we’ve simplified our application so you can get an instant decision in as little as three minutes.
How to Get a Private Student Loan: Step by Step
Step 1: Research Your Student Loan Options
Before applying for a private student loan, it’s important to do your research on the private student loan landscape and learn about your options. This is particularly important when it comes to interest rates and repayment terms, which can affect the amount of money you’ll owe over time.
Tip: For help in understanding what you should look for, check out “10 Things to Know When Shopping for Student Loans.”
Some lenders offer tools early in the process to help you make your decision. At College Ave, we provide a student loan calculator that allows you to see how different loan repayment options will affect your monthly bills and total cost, and a pre-qualification tool to see what rates you can expect before applying.
Step 2: Apply for a Private Student Loan
Once you’ve selected a lender, it’s time to fill out an application. The amount of information required varies, but private student loan applications typically request the following:
- Mailing address
- Phone number
- Date of birth
- Social security number
- Household income
- School you’re attending and expected graduation date
- Cost of attendance
- Requested loan amount
Before formally submitting your application, you will receive a general disclosure document (Application and Solicitation Disclosure) with items like an interest rate range and sample repayment plans. This is a required form that includes other details like federal loan options and general student loan information.
Step 3: Get Approved
After reviewing the disclosure and submitting your application, the private student loan approval process begins.
How long does the student loan application process take?
Some private lenders use a manual review process that could take a few days, while others produce an instant decision online. At College Ave, we provide an instant decision for all of our student loans.
What happens during the student loan approval process?
During the approval process, your lender will evaluate your credit history, among other criteria, to determine if you’re a reliable candidate for a loan. This decision can produce one of three results:
- Eligible with a creditworthy cosigner
If you’re denied, you’ll receive a letter in the mail with the specific reasons why your application was not approved. If you’re eligible with a creditworthy cosigner, it means you aren’t approved to take the loan out by yourself (which is common for students who often have limited credit history and income), but you can add an approved cosigner who has good credit and sufficient income. This individual will take equal responsibility for the loan with you. This can increase your chances of being approved and/or help you receive a lower interest rate.
If you are approved (congratulations!), it’s on to the next step.
Step 4: Accept and Sign Your Loan Terms
Once you’re approved, it’s time to review and accept the terms of your loan. Some lenders offer more flexibility than others when it comes to repayment. Your loan terms might also include a choice between a fixed or variable interest rate, a repayment term length, and/or the ability to make in-school payments.
After you’ve finalized the terms of your loan, you’ll receive a second required disclosure. This disclosure will provide specific information regarding rates, fees, and other terms, including how much your loan will ultimately cost.
Most lenders will let you sign your loan documents electronically so you can skip printing and mailing.
Step 5: Wait for School Certification
Once you’ve signed your loan documents, you’ve pretty much completed your responsibilities in the private student loan process. Your lender and school will take care of the rest – that is until your repayment begins.
During the certification stage, your lender will send your loan details to your school to confirm several things, including your enrollment status (half- or full-time), your anticipated graduation date, and your requested loan amount.
Note that your private student loan amount cannot exceed the school’s calculated cost of attendance, once they factor in other loans or aid you’re receiving. Your school can then certify the loan as is, with changes (amount, graduation date, etc.), or not at all.
If your school makes changes to the loan, your lender will often need to generate new disclosures to make sure you have the latest information. You may need to accept the new disclosure, so keep an eye out for communications.
How long does a student loan certification process take?
The timing of certification is determined by your school and typically takes at least seven to 10 days. Sometimes it can take longer – especially if it’s a busy time of year when many students are applying for loans.
Step 6: Understand Disbursement of Funds
Once your loan is certified by your school, it will be scheduled for disbursement. This means your school can get paid. When it comes to how private student loans work, understanding how student loans are disbursed is a common point of confusion for incoming students.
Private student loans are typically sent straight to your school; they are not sent directly to you (the student). In terms of how long it takes to get your student loan disbursed, your school sets that date, which is usually around the beginning of the semester. While this date is not dependent upon when you applied for your loan, it’s best not to wait too long to apply so that you can avoid any unexpected delays.
Your lender will most likely inform you directly when your private student loan has been disbursed to your school. If you applied for a loan to cover more than one term, often times the money is sent in two separate disbursements. For example, if you applied for a loan to cover both fall and spring, half of the loan money will be sent in the fall and the rest will be sent in the spring.
FINAL STEP: Repay Your Student Loan
Once your loan is disbursed and your tuition is paid, the next – and final – step is for you to repay your student loan. When and how this takes place depends on your loan repayment terms.
In some cases, you can choose deferment, which means you are not required to make any payments until you graduate or are no longer enrolled in school. If you select a deferred plan, you’ll typically have a grace period between the time you graduate (or leave school) and the time you enter your official repayment period.
When lenders offer in-school repayment plans (meaning you make monthly payments while you’re still in school), it’s an opportunity to reduce the overall cost of your loan. Sometimes this responsibility is as little as $25 per month but can make a big difference in the long run.
For more information on how you can reduce the cost of your private student loan, check out these tips.
Updated on 09/20/2019